A new radiolarian-based transfer function for sea surface temperature (SST) estimations has been developed from 23 taxa and taxa groups in 53 surface sediment samples recovered between 35? and 72?S in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. For the selection of taxa and taxa groups ecological information from water column studies was considered. The transfer function allows the estimation of austral summer SST (December-March) ranging between -1 and 18?C with a standard error of estimate of 1.2?C. SST estimates from selected late Pleistocene squences were sucessfully compared with independend paleotemperature estimates derived from a diatom transfer function. This shows that radiolarians provide an excellent tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in Pleistocene sediments of the Southern Ocean.