There is a great similarity between pollen types which occur in the early Holocene NE Tibetan pollen spectra and those which are commonly considered to be typical for the W?rm Late Glacial period in Central Europe and for the W?rm Pleniglacial period in Southern Europe. Evidently, this similarity is due to a remarkable general conformity of plant taxa growing in cold-arid regions of the northern hemisphere. The improvement of the climate and the retreat of the glaciers that commenced at the end of the W?rm period had already terminated definitely before 9500 BP. In addition, the climatic situation as well as the vegetation belts must have remained rather constant during the following 3000 yr, i.e. through most parts of the climatic optimum of the Holocene.