We present the first high-resolution alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction in the southeast Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1233) covering the major part of the last glacial period and the Holocene. The record shows a clear millennial-scale pattern that is very similar to climate fluctuations observed in Antarctic ice cores, suggesting that the Southern Hemisphere high-latitude climate changes extended into the midlatitudes, involving simultaneous changes in air temperatures over Antarctica, sea ice extent, extension of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and westerly atmospheric circulation. A comparison to other midlatitude surface ocean records suggests that this "Antarctic" millennial-scale pattern was probably a hemisphere-wide phenomenon. In addition, we performed SST gradient reconstructions over the complete latitudinal range of the Pacific Eastern Boundary Current System for different time intervals during the last 70 kyr. The main results suggest an equatorward displaced subtropical gyre circulation during marine isotope stages 2 and 4.